At the time of European contact, some 82 languages belonging to 9 different families were spoken in what is now Canada. Of these languages, several have been lost (†) and many more are endangered. It is estimated that by the end of this century, only Inuktitut and one or two of the Cree and Ojibwa languages will have any remaining speakers.
Abnaki, Attikamek, Blackfoot, Central Southern Ojibwa, East Cree, Eastern Ojibwa, Eastern Swampy Cree, Gros Ventre, Maliseet, Micmac, Montagnais, Munsee, Naskapi, Northern Algonquin, Old Algonquin, Ottawa, Passamaquoddy, Plains Cree, Salteaux, Severn Ojibwa, Western Swampy Cree, Woods Cree
Huron, Laurentian †, Mohawk, Neutral †, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca
Ahtna†, Babine-Witsuwit’en, Bearlake, Chilcotin, Dakelh (Carrier), Dene Sunlhiné (Chipewyan), Dogrib, Dunneza (Beaver), Gwich’in (Kutchin), Han, Hare, Kaska, Mountain, Nicola†, Northern Tutchone, Sekani, Slavey, Southern Tutchone, Tagish, Tahltan, Tlingit, Tsetsaut†, Tsúut’ína (Sarcee, Sarsi), Upper Tanana
Colville-Okanagan, Comox, Halkomelem, Nlaka’pamux (Thompson), Nooksack†, Northern Straits, Nuxalk (Bella Coola), Pentlatch†, Secwepemctsin (Shuswap), Shashishalhem (Sechelt), Skwxwú7esh (Squamish), St’at’imcets (Lillooet)
Assiniboine, Crow, Lakhota, Nakoda (Stoney)
Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyạx, Sm’algax), Gitskan (Gitxsan, Gitksaniṃx̣), Nisg’a (Nishga, Nass, Nishka), Southern Tsimshian (Sgüụ̈xs)
Haisla, Heiltsuk, Kʷakʷak’ʷala (Kwakiutl), Nitinaht (Dididaht), Nootka, Oowekyala