• spoken in the Southern Sudan
  • member of the Nilo-Shaharan language family
  • 2–3 million speakers
  • five dialects
  • growing émigré community in Edmonton

Typological features

  • tonal language with thirteen vowel phonemes distinguishing a variety of phonation types
  • makes heavy use of vowel mutation in its morphology

PI: Kristina Geeraert

Map source: Verney, P., et al. (1995). Sudan: Conflict and minorities.